Aristotle’s Metaphysics -|- Educational Philosophy Theory

Aristotle’s Metaphysics

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n metaphysics defined as study of being qua (as) being

n Aristotle combines change and stability in his metaphysics

n act - an actual perfection present in a thing at this time (being/stability)

n potency-the capacity of a thing to acquire new perfections (becoming/change)

n substance - the individual thing itself

n accident - particular perfections which adhere to a substance

n 10 categories

n Substance

n Text Box: }   Accidents (9 in total)

n Quantity

n Quality Being in a secondary sense

n Relation

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n Place

n Time Being which inheres in another

n Action

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n Passivity

n Posture Does not exist on its own

n Habit

n form - the specific nature of a thing which perfects matter; an ACT

n matter - something that receives form; a POTENCY

n change is movement from potency to act

n substantial change involves three principles (1) matter, which stays the same, (2) form, which changes, and (3) a privation or lack which is fulfilled

n change also involves four causes: formal, material, efficient, final

n Examples of four causes:

n Formal – Paint

n Material – Paintbrush

n Efficient – Painter

n Final – The final painting

n Aristotle bases metaphysics on the Unmoved Mover (pure act of thinking)

n the Unmoved Mover is the final cause; it attracts all things to itself

n in pure act of thinking, the Unmoved Mover contemplates itself, not the world

n Aristotle’s proof for the Unmoved Mover based on motion:

Motion involves movement from potency to act.

Finite movers cannot cause motion; they need to receive act from another.

Hence, an Unmoved Mover (pure act) is the ultimate cause of motion.

Comparison of Plato’s and Aristotle’s metaphysics:

Plato’s metaphysics

Aristotle’s metaphysics

One form for an entire species

One form for each individual

Forms located in Ideal World

Forms located inside individuals

Explains Being (unchanging Forms)

Explains Being (form / act) as well as Becoming (potency)

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