Aristotle’s Logic -|- Educational Philosophy Theory

Aristotle’s Logic

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n inventor of formal logic as a tool (does not reduce philosophy to mere logic)

n intuition remains the most fundamental source of knowledge

n for deductive logic (moving from the universal to the particular), Aristotle devised the syllogism (two premises yield a conclusion)

n demonstration - true premises and valid syllogism give a true conclusion

n ten categories (listed below) used to relate subject and predicate:

n predicables: genus (general group, e.g. animal), species (specific kind, e.g. human), specific difference (property that sets apart the species, e.g. reason)

n The Great Laws of Being and Thought (also called the archai - first things)

1. Principle of Identity (A is A.)

2. Principle of Non-Contradiction (A thing cannot both be and not be.)

3. Principle of Excluded Middle. (A thing is either this or that.)

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